Multiple Linear Regression Model

Given a data set $\{y_i,\, x_{i1}, \ldots, x_{ip}\}_{i=1}^n$ of n statistical units, a linear regression model assumes that the relationship between the dependent variable yi and the p-vector of regressors xi is linear. This relationship is modelled through a disturbance term or error variable εi — an unobserved random variable that adds noise to the linear relationship between the dependent variable and regressors.

The MLR is described as follow:

$$ y_i = \beta_1 x_{i1} + \cdots + \beta_p x_{ip} + \varepsilon_i = \mathbf{x}^{\rm T}_i\boldsymbol\beta + \varepsilon_i, \qquad i = 1, \ldots, n, $$


  • $\mathbf{x}^{\rm T}_i$ is the transpose matrix

Often these n equations are stacked together and written in vector form as

$$\mathbf{y} = \mathbf{X}\boldsymbol\beta + \boldsymbol\varepsilon, \, $$

$$\mathbf{y} = \begin{pmatrix} y_1 \\ y_2 \\ \vdots \\ y_n \end{pmatrix}, \quad \mathbf{X} = \begin{pmatrix} \mathbf{x}^{\rm T}_1 \\ \mathbf{x}^{\rm T}_2 \\ \vdots \\ \mathbf{x}^{\rm T}_n \end{pmatrix} = \begin{pmatrix} x_{11} & \cdots & x_{1p} \\ x_{21} & \cdots & x_{2p} \\ \vdots & \ddots & \vdots \\ x_{n1} & \cdots & x_{np} \end{pmatrix}, \quad \boldsymbol\beta = \begin{pmatrix} \beta_1 \\ \beta_2 \\ \vdots \\ \beta_p \end{pmatrix}, \quad \boldsymbol\varepsilon = \begin{pmatrix} \varepsilon_1 \\ \varepsilon_2 \\ \vdots \\ \varepsilon_n \end{pmatrix}. $$

  1. $y_i\,$ is called the regressand, response variable, measured variable, or dependent variable (see dependent and independent variables.)
  2. $\mathbf{x}_i\,$ are called regressors, exogenous variables, explanatory variables, covariates, input variables, predictor variables, or independent variables (see dependent and independent variables, but not to be confused with independent random variables).
  3. Usually a constant is included as one of the regressors which is called the intercept.

Files Examples


  • Hamilton, J .D.; Time Series Analysis , Princeton University Press (1994), ISBN 0-691-04289-6
  • Kenney, J. F. and Keeping, E. S. (1962) "Linear Regression and Correlation." Ch. 15 in Mathematics of Statistics, Pt. 1, 3rd ed. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand, pp. 252-285
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